The reaction must, therefore, be kinetically controlled in order to obtain a maximal vinyl chloride yield. One of the best-known applications of the plastic was initiated in 1930, when the Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation (later the Union Carbide Corporation) introduced Vinylite, a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate that became the standard material of long-playing phonograph records. The chemical structure of the vinyl chloride repeating units is: PVC was prepared by the French chemist Henri Victor Regnault in 1835 and then by the German chemist Eugen Baumann in 1872, but it was not patented until 1912, when another German chemist, Friedrich Heinrich August Klatte, used sunlight to initiate the polymerization of vinyl chloride. …(where X is Cl) gives polyvinyl chloride, or. Commercially it is made by combining feedstock with elemental chlorine. Omissions? Chloroethene, Chloroethylene, Ethylene monochloride, Monochloroethene, Monochloroethylene, VC, VCM, Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) Colorless gas or liquid (below 7°F) with a pleasant odor at high concentrations. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid and flexible. Then, finally, on January 23, 1974, B.F. Goodrich informed the government and issued a press release stating that it was "investigating whether the cancer deaths of three employees in the polyvinyl chloride operations at its Louisville, Ky. plant were related to occupational causes.  The intensity of symptoms varies from acute (1,000-8,000 ppm), including dizziness, nausea, visual disturbances, headache, and ataxia, to chronic (above 12,000 ppm), including narcotic effect, cardiac arrhythmias, and fatal respiratory failure. Klaus Weissermel, Hans-Jürgen Arpe in "Industrial organic chemistry", "Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Vinyl Chloride"1988. We have built facilities to produce special vinyl chloride resin in the U.S. and Asia as part of this global-scale business. National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) (2004). School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. They obtained it by treating 1,2-dichloroethane with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol.. ", The Houston Chronicle claimed in 1998 that the vinyl industry manipulated vinyl chloride studies to avoid liability for worker exposure and hid extensive and severe chemical spills in local communities. In the U.S., OSHA lists vinyl chloride as a Class IA Flammable Liquid, with a National Fire Protection Association Flammability Rating of 4. Hence, to save the processing cost for manufacturing ethylene, numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. When used as a geomembrane, plasticizer additions of 25%–35% are common. The symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure are classified by ppm levels in ambient air with 4,000 ppm having a threshold effect. Kramer, G.C., M.D. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen that causes a rare cancer of the liver. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1997). When treated with certain catalysts, vinyl chloride monomers undergo polymerization and form the larger compound known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. Vinyl chloride can have acute dermal and ocular effects.  In 1963, research paid for in part by Allied Chemical found liver damage in test animals from exposures below 500 parts per million (ppm). Vinyl chloride (CH2=CHCl), also known as chloroethylene, is most often obtained by reacting ethylene with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over a copper catalyst. Vinyl chloride | H2C=CHCl or (C2H3Cl)n or C2H3Cl | CID 6338 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. " EPA's 2001 updated Toxicological Profile and Summary Health Assessment for VCM in its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database lowers EPA's previous risk factor estimate by a factor of 20 and concludes that "because of the consistent evidence for liver cancer in all the studies...and the weaker association for other sites, it is concluded that the liver is the most sensitive site, and protection against liver cancer will protect against possible cancer induction in other tissues. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1999). PVC is produced from its monomer, vinyl chloride. Viola, P L. "Carcinogenic Effect of Vinyl Chloride" Presented at the Tenth International Cancer Congress. Atlanta, US. In 1912, Fritz Klatte, a German chemist working for Griesheim-Elektron, patented a means to produce vinyl chloride from acetylene and hydrogen chloride using mercuric chloride as a catalyst. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the mostly widely distributed plastic in the world. "Vinyl chloride." China still uses this method to produce vinyl chloride due to the large reserves of coal from which acetylene is produced. US Department of Health and Human Services.  Also in 1963, a Romanian researcher published findings of liver disease in vinyl chloride workers. "Vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers." Tons of PVC are sold on the right ) ensure a quality end product floor tile, hose. As shown code number of PVC is produced by polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer apply to the generating! 500 ppm organohalogen compound that has important industrial applications, electric-wire insulation, and is generally carried out in conventional! 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